KADAR GIZI, PATI RESISTEN, DAN INDEKS GLIKEMIK BISKUIT GANDUM UTUH (Triticum aestivum L) VARIETAS DWR-1621

Anik Haryani, Silvia Andini, Sri Hartini

Abstract


Penelitian ini merupakan salah satu langkah awal pengembangan pangan di Indonesia. Hal tersebut berkaitan dengan gandum yang dibudidayakan di Indonesia, yaitu gandum varietas DWR-162. Tujuan utama penelitian ini adalah menentukan pengaruh tepung gandum utuh varietas DWR-162 terhadap kandungan pati resisten (penentuan secara enzimatis) dan kadar gizi, yang biskuit meliputi kadar air (AOAC), abu (AOAC), lemak total (AOAC), karbohidrat total (Anthrone), protein terlarut (Biuret), dan serat kasar (AOAC). Parameter gizi tersebut dibandingkan dengan Standar Nasional Indonesia (SNI) 01-2973-1992 tentang mutu dan cara uji biskuit. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa biskuit dengan 10-50% tepung gandum utuh memiliki kadar air, abu dan lemak total berturut-turut adalah 0,85-0,92%, 1,35-1,43%, dan 33,44-41,70%. Nilai tersebut memenuhi syarat mutu SNI. Selain itu, kadar protein terlarut biskuit adalah 30,41-45,62%. Namun, karbohidrat total biskuit lebih rendah dari SNI, yaitu 37,58-49,32% dan kadar serat kasarnya lebih tinggi dari SNI yaitu 3,91-5,73%. Pati resisten biskuit meningkat hingga kadar substitusi gandum utuh 50% dari 17,8% menjadi 30,19%. Tingginya pati resisten biskuit gandum lokal ini sesuai dengan nilai indeks glikemik biskuit yang tergolong rendah, yaitu < 55. Dengan demikian, gandum varietas DWR-162 berpotensi menjadi alternative bahan pangan fungsional.

This study was one of the initial steps in the development of Indonesian food based onlocal wheat, namely wheat DWR-162. The primary objective of this study was to determine the effect of the whole-wheat flour on the resistant starch content (enzimatically determined) and nutrition content of biscuits i.e moisture content (AOAC), ash (AOAC), total fat (AOAC), total carbohydrate (Anthrone), soluble protein (Biuret), and crude fiber (AOAC). The nutritional values were compared to the Indonesian National Standard (SNI) 01-2973-1992 about quality of biscuit. The results of this study showed that biscuits with 10-50% whole wheat flour had moisture, ash and total fat contents of 0.85% to 0.92%, 1.35% to 1.43%, and 33.44% to 41.70%, respectively. These values met the standard. In addition, the soluble protein content of biscuit was 30.41% to 45.62%. However, the total carbohydrate content, 37.58% to 49.32% was lower than SNI,while the crude fiber content, 3.91% to 5.73% was higher than SNI. Resistant starch increased from 17.8% to 30.19% along with the increased whole wheat substitution from 0% to 50%. The high content of resistant starch was in line with the low glycemic index of the biscuits, < 55. Thus, whole wheat DWR-162 could be potentially employed as a functional food ingredient.

 


Keywords


wheat DWR-162, whole wheat, biscuit, resistant starch, nutrition

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.26623/jtphp.v12i1.470

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